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Download An Outline of Energy Metabolism in Man by Gordon L. Atkins PDF

By Gordon L. Atkins

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Fig. 5a summarizes the process. The three major tissues which take up lipoproteins are adipose tissue, and skeletal and cardiac muscle. At the endothelial surfaces of these tissues lipoprotein lipase hydrolyses the triacylglycerols within the complex. Free fatty acids are taken up by the cells and the other components, glycerol and the remains of the VLDL, are returned to the liver (Fig. 5b). In adipose tissue the lipoprotein lipase is sensitive to insulin and is active only during the absorption of food, so that the free fatty acids are channelled into storage as triacylglycerols.

Since essential amino acids cannot be synthesized a shortage of one of these will limit the rate of protein synthesis. Whereas carbohydrate and fat have specific storage forms, glycogen and triacylglycerols, there is no special depot for protein. e. muscle proteins, enzymes, serum proteins, connective tissue, etc. 1). Therefore it is the above proteins, especially those from visceral organs and muscle, that must be degraded to provide a source of the amino acids. 45 5. 1 The more important hormones controlling energy metabolism Abbreviations: AA FFA TAG KB hypoglycaemia injury/stress Cortisol Effect on protein synthesis!

The major control for energy metabolism is by means of the energy demand within the cell. During energy production, material will be oxidized by the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation so that ATP is produced. e. a high ATP concentration, will inhibit oxidative phosphorylation at step 9 (Fig. 2) resulting in a build up of NADH. The increased concentration of NADH will in turn cause inhibition of the citric acid cycle at the various dehydrogenases that produce NADH (steps 7). High concentrations of ADP and phosphate will occur when there is a shortage of ATP and these will therefore stimulate oxidative phosphorylation.

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