By George Rapp
Archaeomineralogy offers a wealth of data for mineralogists, geologists and archaeologists interested in archaeometric stuides of our prior. the 1st version used to be rather well recieved and praised for its systematic description of the rocks and minerals used througout the area through our ancestors and for its first-class record of over 500 references, delivering easy accessibility to the fields of archaeomineralogy and geoacrchaeology.
This moment version of Archaeomineralogy takes an up to date and accelerated examine the human use of rocks and minerals from the Paleolithic via to the 18th century ACE. It keeps the constitution and major issues of the unique version yet has been revised and improved with greater than 2 hundred new references within the textual content, a bibliography of worthwhile references now not integrated within the textual content, a dozen new figures (drawings and photos), assurance of many extra vital mineral, rock, and gem fabrics, elevated geographic scope, relatively yet now not restricted to japanese Europe, and a extra thorough evaluate of early contributions to archaeomineralogy in particular these of Agricola.
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Additional resources for Archaeomineralogy
The Fe2+ = Ti2+ charge transfer gives sapphire its blue color. When a small amount of chromium, another transition element, is present in corundum (Al2O3), a red color develops and the corundum is called ruby. Both natural and synthetic rubies are colored in this manner. However, if a large amount of chromium is forced into the corundum structure, the resulting color is green. The same phenomenon occurs in chrome spinel, Mg(Al,Cr)2O4. Minor amounts of chromium produce a red color; larger amounts, green.
The principal disadvantages of XRF are (1) matrix and interference problems, and (2) an instrument cost perhaps four times as great as AA. Neutron activation analysis is a physical method of analysis where a wide range of elements can be measured simultaneously with no loss in precision. Neutron activation analysis requires only a small sample (50 mg for metals, 200 mg for silicates), no complex sample preparation, and no extraction techniques. A sample analyzed by this technique is subjected to irradiation by slow (thermal) neutrons in a nuclear reactor.
Among other things, Needham illustrates the reasonably accurate geomorphology in ancient Chinese art. By the late first century BCE the Chinese believed in the alchemical principle of the transformation of one mineral into another. From Han times (206 BCE–220 CE) to the last Chinese Dynasty, the Ching (Qing, 1644–1912 CE), most mineral descriptions were contained in pharmacopoeias. Mineral remedies were included from the earliest times. Cinnabar, alum, saltpeter, hematite, and amethyst were of greatest value.